are essential to living organisms, and a malfunction of even a single enzyme out of approximately 2,000 types present
in our bodies can lead to severe or lethal illness. An example of a disease caused by an enzyme malfunction in humans is phenylketonuria
(PKU). The enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which usually converts the essential amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine does
not work, resulting in a buildup of phenylalanine that leads to mental retardation. Enzymes in the human body can also be
influenced by inhibitors. Aspirin, for example, inhibits an enzyme that produces prostaglandins (inflammation messengers),
thus suppressing pain and inflammation. Enzymes are also used in everyday products such as washing detergents, where they
speed up chemical reactions involved in cleaning the clothes (for example, breaking down blood stains).